WebHistory Of Computing: Alan Turing, The Father Of Computer Science Research Paper Example John Q. Student “Can machines think?” – Alan Turing, This is the one WebTechnology Advancement Technology Advancement Introduction Computers are considered as the most essential part in today's life. In the current era it is hard to Web2) Role of Computers in Design and planning phase Design and planning phase consist of research design, population, research variables, sampling plan, reviewing research Web · As a research theme, cloud computing now easily tops any schedule of topics in a computer science because of its far-reaching suggestion in many sector in WebThe research paper format varies according to the discipline and the professor’s instructions, but below is one example of the required format for an analytical paper. ... read more
In , we used the term computing instead of computer science , mathematics, and engineering. Today, computing science, engineering, mathematics, art. Discrete mathematical structures with applications to computer science free download The objectives of the course are: To develop Professional Skills through effective communication To introduce a number of Mathematical Foundation to be serving as tools even today in the development of theoretical computer science To gain some confidence on. Bringing computational thinking to K what is Involved and what is the role of the computer science education community free download When Jeanette Wing  launched a discussion regarding the role of computational thinking across all disciplines, she ignited a profound engagement with the core questions of what computer science is and what it might contribute to solving problems across the.
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Introduction At our university, there are over four hundred declared majors in Computer Science. Each semester, however, only about fifteen to twenty students graduate in this field. The freshman courses comprise overflowing multiple sections, but the upper level courses make. Form and content in computer science free download The trouble with computer science today is an obsessive concern with form instead of content. No, that is the wrong way to begin. By any previous standard the vitality of computer science is enormous; what other intellectual area ever advanced so far in twenty years.
Traditional paths to wealth like law, medicine, and business are more certain, and over the. COM - IEEE PAPER. It is true that Apple was founded in a garage by two friends, and Bill Gates dropped out of college to help his buddies found Microsoft. For a few years after the Apple II computer appeared in , an individual could write a commercially viable software program and start a small company to market it. But the greatest advances after the mids again required the combination of massive government funding and large corporations.
Internet was born in as ARPAnet, a research network funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the U. government that connected computers at the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah. In it was first demonstrated to the public, and in the same year it began carrying email. More and more educational institutions, government agencies, and corporations began using the Internet—and finding new uses for it—until by the end of the s it was an essential tool for research and had begun to demonstrate its value for business and personal applications.
For example, in Roy Trubshaw and Richard Bartle invented the first online fantasy game or MUD Multiple-User Dungeon at Essex University in England, and in Alan Cox at the University College of Wales released his own version onto the Internet. In at the high-energy physics laboratories of the Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire CERN near Geneva, Switzerland, Tim Berners-Lee developed the first hypertext browser and coined the term World Wide Web. Early in , University of Illinois student Marc Andreessen at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, funded by the U. National Science Foundation, programmed the first version of Mosaic, the easy-to-use browser that would introduce millions of people to the Web.
The mainframe-timesharing concept of the s has evolved into what is called client-server architecture. A server is a dedicated computer, often large, that houses centralized databases in companies, universities, or government agencies or connects directly to the Internet. Originally, clients were dumb terminals with little or no computing power of their own, but today they are powerful personal computers connected to the server and able to access its resources. A very different approach has arisen recently, called peer-to-peer architecture—for example, the music-file-sharing programs like Napster that link personal computers over the Web, in which each computer simultaneously functions as both server and client.
The grid computing concept distributes big computation jobs across many widely distributed computers, or distributes data across many archives, eroding the distinction between individual computers and the Internet. Computers today are found nearly everywhere, embedded in automobiles and grocery store checkout counters, or packaged as pocket-sized personal digital assistants that allow a user to send email or surf the Web from almost anywhere. They have begun to take over the roles of traditional devices such as telephones and televisions, while other devices have become accessories to computers, notably cameras and music players. Old forms of computing do not die, but expand.
Two decades of doubling every eighteen months means improvement by a factor of 8, What will people do with such power? In , the Interagency Working Group on Information Technology Research and Development of the U. Research Paper Examples. History Research Paper. Computer Research Paper. After completing the selection, executethe SPSS command. on the dialog box. Conclusion To conclude, computers are useful tools that make the research process easier and faster with accuracy and greater reliability and fewer errors. The data, after collection has to be processed and analysed in accordance with the outline laid down for the purpose at the time of developing the research plan. This is essential for a scientific study and for ensuring that we have all relevant data making contemplated comparision and analysis Technically speaking processing implises editing, coding, classification, and tabulation of collected data so that they are amenable to analysis The term analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching for patterns of relationship that exit among data group.
Data processing Data processing is, broadly, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful informations. Editing Editing of data is a process of examining the collected raw material especially in surveys to detect errors and omissions and to correct these when possible. As a matter of fact, editing involves a careful scruitiny of the completed questionnaires and or schedules. b Central editing: - central editing should take place when all forms or schedules have been completed and returned to the office. This type of editing implies that all form should get a through editing by a single editor in a small study and by a team of editors in case of large of inquiry. Some points of editing Editors must keep in view several points while performing their editing work which are as follows a They should be familiar with instructions given to the interviewers and coders as well as with the editing instructions supplied to them.
b They must make entries on the in some distinctive colour and that too in a standardised form. Coding Coding refers to the process of assigning numerals or other symbols to answers so that responses can be put into a limited number of categories or classes. Coding is necessary for efficient analysis and through it the several replies may be reduced to a small number of classes which contain the critical information required for analysis. Coding is translating answers into numerical values or assigning numbers to the various categories of a variable to be used in data analysis.
Coding is done by using a code book, code sheet, and a computer card. Coding is done on the basis of the instructions given in the codebook. The code book gives a numerical code for each variable. Pose data collection; pre-coded items are fed to the computer for processing and analysis. For open-ended questions, however, post-coding is necessary. In such cases, all answers to open-ended questions are placed in categories and each category is assigned with a code. However, coding is done in manual processing also. Classification Most research studies result in a large volume of raw data which must be reduced into homogeneous group if we are to get meaning full relationships.
The classification arranged on the basis of common characteristics. This procedure is referred to as tabulation. Thus tabulation is the process of summarising raw data and displaying the same in compact form i. in the form of statistical tables in a broader sense, tabulation is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and row. After editing, which ensures that the information on the schedule is accurate and categorized in a suitable form, the data are put together in some kinds of tables and may also undergo some other forms of statistical analysis. For a small study of to persons, there may be little point in tabulating by computer since this necessitates putting the data on punched cards.
But for a survey analysis involving a large number of respondents and requiring cross tabulation involving more than two variables, hand tabulation will be inappropriate and time consuming. Importance of tabulation Tabulation is essential because of the following reasons:- a It facilitates the process of comparison. b It provides a basis for various statistical computation c The present an overall view of findings in a simpler way. d They identify trends. e They display relationships in a comparable way between parts of the findings. f By convention, the dependent variable is presented in the rows and the independent variable in the columns. Principles of tabulation a Every table should be given a distinct number to facilitate easy reference. b The column headings and the row headings of the table should be clear and brief.
c The columns may be numbered to facilitate reference. d Total of row should normally be placed in the extreme right column and that of columns should be placed at the bottom. Some problems in processing We can take up the following two problems of processing the data for analysis purpose. When the DK response group is small it is of little significance but when it is relatively big it becomes a matter of major concern in which the case the question arise. b Use of percentage — percentages are often used in data presentation for reducing all of them to a 0 to range. Rules of percentage a Two or more percentages must not be averaged unless each is weighted by the group size from which it has been derived.
b Use of too large percentage should be avoided since a large percentage is difficult to understand and tends to confuse, defeating the very purpose for which percentage are used. c Percentage hide the base from which they have been computed. If this is not kept in view the real difference may not be correctly read. Data analysis Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. As stated earlier, by analysis we mean the computation of certain indices or measures along with searching for patterns of relationship that exist among the data groups. Data analysis is an ongoing activity, which not only answers your question but also gives you the directions for future data collection.
Data analysis procedures DAP help you to arrive at the data analysis. The uses of such procedures put your research project in perspective and assist you in testing the hypotheses with which you have started your research. Hence with the use of DAP, you can a convert data into information and knowledge, and b explore the relationship between variables. Types of analysis Analysis may, therefore be categorized as descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. a Descriptive analysis — descriptive analysis is largely the study of distribution of one variable. this study provides us with profiles of companies, work groups, persons and other subjects on any of a multiple of characteristics such as size , composition , efficiency , preferences.
b Inferential analysis- is concerned with the various tests of significance for testing hypothesis in order to determine with what validity data can be said to indicate some conclusion or conclusions. It is also concerned with the estimation of population values. RELATED PAPERS. Business Research Method Zikmund el al 8th ed. BUS Student Notes. THE ISLAND OF RESEARCH A practical guide and E-toolkit for the information age VOLUME 1 DATA AND GRAPHICS 4TH REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION. Official Statistics Process quality control to prevent non-sampling errors in the Italian multipurpose system of social surveys. Handbook on geographic information systems and digital mapping. BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS UNIT I.
This list of computer technology research paper topics provides the list of 33 potential topics for research papers and an overview article on the history of computer technology. Paralleling the split between analog and digital computers, in the s the term analog computer was a posteriori projected onto pre-existing classes of mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical computing artifacts, subsuming them under the same category. The fact is, however, that influential classifications of computing technology from the previous decades never provided an encompassing demarcation compared to the analog— digital distinction used since the s.
Historians of the digital computer find that the experience of working with software was much closer to art than science, a process that was resistant to mass production; historians of the analog computer find this to have been typical of working with the analog computer throughout all its aspects. The historiography of the progress of digital computing invites us to turn to the software crisis, which perhaps not accidentally, surfaced when the crisis caused by the analog ended. Noticeably, it was not until the process of computing with a digital electronic computer became sufficiently visual by the addition of a special interface—to substitute for the loss of visualization that was previously provided by the analog computer—that the analog computer finally disappeared.
Artificial intelligence AI is the field of software engineering that builds computer systems and occasionally robots to perform tasks that require intelligence. This two-month workshop marks the official birth of AI, which brought together young researchers who would nurture the field as it grew over the next several decades: Marvin Minsky, Claude Shannon, Arthur Samuel, Ray Solomonoff, Oliver Selfridge, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon. It would be difficult to argue that the technologies derived from AI research had a profound effect on our way of life by the beginning of the 21st century.
However, AI technologies have been successfully applied in many industrial settings, medicine and health care, and video games. Programming techniques developed in AI research were incorporated into more widespread programming practices, such as high-level programming languages and time-sharing operating systems. While AI did not succeed in constructing a computer which displays the general mental capabilities of a typical human, such as the HAL computer in Arthur C. More than this, AI has provided a powerful and defining image of what computer technology might someday be capable of achieving.
Interactive computer and video games were first developed in laboratories as the late-night amusements of computer programmers or independent projects of television engineers. Their formats include computer software; networked, multiplayer games on time-shared systems or servers; arcade consoles; home consoles connected to television sets; and handheld game machines. The first experimental projects grew out of early work in computer graphics, artificial intelligence, television technology, hardware and software interface development, computer-aided education, and microelectronics. The main lines of development during the s and early s were home video consoles, coin-operated arcade games, and computer software. The display is an essential part of any general-purpose computer. Its function is to act as an output device to communicate data to humans using the highest bandwidth input system that humans possess—the eyes.
Much of the development of computer displays has been about trying to get closer to the limits of human visual perception in terms of color and spatial resolution. These were fed data from the host computer and processed the data to create screen images using a graphics processor. The display was typically integrated with a keyboard system and some communication hardware as a terminal or video display unit VDU following the basic model used for teletypes. Personal computers PCs in the late s and early s changed this model by integrating the graphics controller into the computer chassis itself.
Early PC displays typically displayed only monochrome text and communicated in character codes such as ASCII. Line-scanning frequencies were typically from 15 to 20 kilohertz—similar to television. CRT displays rapidly developed after the introduction of video graphics array VGA technology by pixels in16 colors in the mids and scan frequencies rose to 60 kilohertz or more for mainstream displays; kilohertz or more for high-end displays. These displays were capable of displaying formats up to by pixels with high color depths. Because the human eye is very quick to respond to visual stimulation, developments in display technology have tended to track the development of semiconductor technology that allows the rapid manipulation of the stored image.
During the second half of the twentieth century, the two primary methods used for the long-term storage of digital information were magnetic and optical recording. These methods were selected primarily on the basis of cost. Compared to core or transistorized random-access memory RAM , storage costs for magnetic and optical media were several orders of magnitude cheaper per bit of information and were not volatile; that is, the information did not vanish when electrical power was turned off. However, access to information stored on magnetic and optical recorders was much slower compared to RAM memory.
As a result, computer designers used a mix of both types of memory to accomplish computational tasks. Designers of magnetic and optical storage systems have sought meanwhile to increase the speed of access to stored information to increase the overall performance of computer systems, since most digital information is stored magnetically or optically for reasons of cost. Computer simulation models have transformed the natural, engineering, and social sciences, becoming crucial tools for disciplines as diverse as ecology, epidemiology, economics, urban planning, aerospace engineering, meteorology, and military operations.
Computer models help researchers study systems of extreme complexity, predict the behavior of natural phenomena, and examine the effects of human interventions in natural processes. Engineers use models to design everything from jets and nuclear-waste repositories to diapers and golf clubs. Models enable astrophysicists to simulate supernovas, biochemists to replicate protein folding, geologists to predict volcanic eruptions, and physiologists to identify populations at risk of lead poisoning. Clearly, computer models provide a powerful means of solving problems, both theoretical and applied. Computers and computer networks have changed the way we do almost everything—the way we teach, learn, do research, access or share information, communicate with each other, and even the way we entertain ourselves.
A computer network, in simple terms, consists of two or more computing devices often called nodes interconnected by means of some medium capable of transmitting data that allows the computers to communicate with each other in order to provide a variety of services to users. Computer science occupies a unique position among the scientific and technical disciplines. It revolves around a specific artifact—the electronic digital computer—that touches upon a broad and diverse set of fields in its design, operation, and application. As a result, computer science represents a synthesis and extension of many different areas of mathematics, science, engineering, and business.
The story of computer-aided control technology is inextricably entwined with the modern history of automation. Automation in the first half of the twentieth century involved often analog processes for continuous automatic measurement and control of hardware by hydraulic, mechanical, or electromechanical means. These processes facilitated the development and refinement of battlefield fire-control systems, feedback amplifiers for use in telephony, electrical grid simulators, numerically controlled milling machines, and dozens of other innovations. A computer interface is the point of contact between a person and an electronic computer. Computer user interfaces developed through three distinct stages, which can be identified as batch processing, interactive computing, and the graphical user interface GUI.
In GUI design, every new software feature introduces more icons into the process of computer— user interaction. Presently, the large vocabulary of icons used in GUI design is difficult for users to remember, which creates a complexity problem. As GUIs become more complex, interface designers are adding voice recognition and intelligent agent technologies to make computer user interfaces even easier to operate. However, the move toward base-2 or binary computing in the s brought about a new paradigm in technology—the digital computer, whose most elementary component was an on—off switch. Information on a digital system is represented using a combination of on and off signals, stored as binary digits shortened to bits : zeros and ones.
Text characters, symbols, or numerical values can all be coded as bits, so that information stored in digital memory is just zeros and ones, regardless of the storage medium. The history of computer memory is closely linked to the history of computers but a distinction should be made between primary or main and secondary memory. Computers only need operate on one segment of data at a time, and with memory being a scarce resource, the rest of the data set could be stored in less expensive and more abundant secondary memory. Digital computers were a marked departure from the electrical and mechanical calculating and computing machines in wide use from the early twentieth century.
By using only two states, engineering was also greatly simplified, and universality and accuracy increased. Further developments from the early purpose-built machines, to ones that were programmable accompanied by many key technological developments, resulted in the well-known success and proliferation of the digital computer. The advancement of electrical engineering in the twentieth century made a fundamental change in control technology. New electronic devices including vacuum tubes valves and transistors were used to replace electromechanical elements in conventional controllers and to develop new types of controllers.
In these practices, engineers discovered basic principles of control theory that could be further applied to design electronic control systems. Before the invention of the digital computer at mid-century, national governments across the world relied on mechanical and electromechanical cryptanalytic devices to protect their own national secrets and communications, as well as to expose enemy secrets. Code breaking played an important role in both World Wars I and II, and the successful exploits of Polish and British cryptographers and signals intelligence experts in breaking the code of the German Enigma ciphering machine which had a range of possible transformations between a message and its code of approximately trillion or million million million are well documented.
In telecommunications, whether transmission of data or voice signals is over copper, fiber-optic, or wireless links, information coded in the signal transmitted must be decoded by the receiver from a background of noise. Signal errors can be introduced, for example from physical defects in the transmission medium semiconductor crystal defects, dust or scratches on magnetic memory, bubbles in optical fibers , from electromagnetic interference natural or manmade or cosmic rays, or from cross-talk unwanted coupling between channels. Random bit errors occur singly and in no relation to each other.
Burst error is a large, sustained error or loss of data, perhaps caused by transmission problems in the connecting cables, or sudden noise. Analog to digital conversion can also introduce sampling errors. The NAVSTAR NAVigation System Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System GPS provides an unlimited number of military and civilian users worldwide with continuous, highly accurate data on their position in four dimensions— latitude, longitude, altitude, and time— through all weather conditions. It includes space, control, and user segments Figure 6. A constellation of 24 satellites in 10, nautical miles, nearly circular orbits—six orbital planes, equally spaced 60 degrees apart, inclined approximately 55 degrees relative to the equator, and each with four equidistant satellites—transmits microwave signals in two different L-band frequencies.
Synchronized, extremely precise atomic clocks—rubidium and cesium— aboard the satellites render the constellation semiautonomous by alleviating the need to continuously control the satellites from the ground. The control segment consists of a master facility at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado, and a global network of automated stations. It passively tracks the entire constellation and, via an S-band uplink, periodically sends updated orbital and clock data to each satellite to ensure that navigation signals received by users remain accurate. Finally, GPS users—on land, at sea, in the air or space—rely on commercially produced receivers to convert satellite signals into position, time, and velocity estimates.
Before the twentieth century, navigation at sea employed two complementary methods, astronomical and dead reckoning. New navigational technology was required not only for iron ships in which traditional compasses required correction, but for aircraft and submarines in which magnetic compasses cannot be used. Owing to their rapid motion, aircraft presented challenges for near instantaneous navigation data collection and reduction. Electronics furnished the exploitation of radio and the adaptation of a gyroscope to direction finding through the invention of the nonmagnetic gyrocompass. Although the Cold War arms race after World War II led to the development of inertial navigation, German manufacture of the V-2 rocket under the direction of Wernher von Braun during the war involved a proto-inertial system, a two-gimballed gyro with an integrator to determine speed.
Inertial guidance combines a gyrocompass with accelerometers installed along orthogonal axes, devices that record all accelerations of the vehicle in which inertial guidance has been installed. Inertial guidance devices can subtract accelerations due to gravity or other motions of the vehicle. Because inertial guidance does not depend on an outside reference, it is the ultimate dead reckoning system, ideal for the nuclear submarines for which they were invented and for ballistic missiles. Their self-contained nature makes them resistant to electronic countermeasures. Inertial systems were first installed in commercial aircraft during the s.
The expense of manufacturing inertial guidance mechanisms and their necessary management by computer has limited their application largely to military and some commercial purposes. Inertial systems accumulate errors, so their use at sea except for submarines has been as an adjunct to other navigational methods, unlike aircraft applications. Only the development of the global positioning system GPS at the end of the century promised to render all previous navigational technologies obsolete. Nevertheless, a range of technologies, some dating to the beginning of the century, remain in use in a variety of commercial and leisure applications. The assumptions held by the adherents of the digital computer—regarding the dynamic mechanization of computational labor to accompany the equally dynamic increase in computational work—was becoming a universal ideology.
From this perspective, the digital computer justly appeared to be technically superior. From this perspective—as historiographically unwanted it may be by those who agree with the essentialist conception of the analog—digital demarcation—the history of the hybrid computer suggests that the computer as we now know it was brought about by linking the analog and the digital, not by separating them. True hybrids fell into the middle spectrum that included: pure analog computers, analog computers using digital-type numerical analysis techniques, analog computers programmed with the aid of digital computers, analog computers using digital control and logic, analog computers using digital subunits, analog computers using digital computers as peripheral equipment, balanced hybrid computer systems, digital computers using analog subroutines, digital computers with analog arithmetic elements, digital computers designed to permit analog-type programming, digital computers with analog-oriented compilers and interpreters, and pure digital computers.
Information theory, also known originally as the mathematical theory of communication, was first explicitly formulated during the mid-twentieth century. Almost immediately it became a foundation; first, for the more systematic design and utilization of numerous telecommunication and information technologies; and second, for resolving a paradox in thermodynamics. Finally, information theory has contributed to new interpretations of a wide range of biological and cultural phenomena, from organic physiology and genetics to cognitive behavior, human language, economics, and political decision making. Reflecting the symbiosis between theory and practice typical of twentieth century technology, technical issues in early telegraphy and telephony gave rise to a proto-information theory developed by Harry Nyquist at Bell Labs in and Ralph Hartley, also at Bell Labs, in
WebTechnology Advancement Technology Advancement Introduction Computers are considered as the most essential part in today's life. In the current era it is hard to Web · As a research theme, cloud computing now easily tops any schedule of topics in a computer science because of its far-reaching suggestion in many sector in WebHistory Of Computing: Alan Turing, The Father Of Computer Science Research Paper Example John Q. Student “Can machines think?” – Alan Turing, This is the one Web · It is known that we are living in technological era. The computers became irreplaceable tool in everyday life of almost each person. The adult users generally use it Web2) Role of Computers in Design and planning phase Design and planning phase consist of research design, population, research variables, sampling plan, reviewing research WebThe research paper format varies according to the discipline and the professor’s instructions, but below is one example of the required format for an analytical paper. ... read more
In GUI design, every new software feature introduces more icons into the process of computer— user interaction. By , professor John Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry had created a demonstration machine at Iowa State University, but they did not develop it further. The linear representation may be a sentence, a computer. Synchronized, extremely precise atomic clocks—rubidium and cesium— aboard the satellites render the constellation semiautonomous by alleviating the need to continuously control the satellites from the ground. business research method.However, many new mathematical instruments emerged in the nineteenth century and increasingly began to change the world of science and engineering. to build weapons systems and the oil industry to create geological models that show potential oil deposits. What will people do with such power? Byresearch paper about computers personal computer had transformed into a business machine, and IBM decided to develop its own personal computer, research paper about computers, which was introduced as the IBM PC in Developing games scripts and storyboards.