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Scientific abstracts

How to Write a Scientific Abstract,Conclusion

15/03/ · A scientific abstract is defined as a summary of contents within a scientific paper. Scientific abstracts are necessary for all scientific studies including psychology, humanities 26/06/ · An abstract is a concise summary of an experiment or research project. It should be brief -- typically under words. The purpose of the abstract is to summarize the 29/03/ · A scientific abstract summarizes your research paper or article in a concise, clearly written way that informs readers about the article's content. Researchers use abstracts to 12/05/ · A clear and concise abstract is one of the most essential parts of a scientific research paper, lab report, doctoral thesis, conference presentation or any other kind of 15/03/ · Contents of an Abstract Introduction: The introduction, also referred to as the background, provides the necessary background information the Methods: The methods ... read more

The reader must have access to the complete article. From these abstracts, you must get the essence of what your report is about, usually in about words. Most informative abstracts also have key parts in common. The parts include:. The abstracts provide accurate data on the contents of the work, especially on the results section. When the abstract does not present divisions between each section , and it may not even present any of them, it is a non-structured abstract. The sentences are included in one paragraph. They are suitable for the descriptive abstracts. A semi-structured abstract is written in only one paragraph, where each sentence corresponds to a section.

All the sections of the article are present as in the structured abstract. A structured abstract has a paragraph for each section: Introduction, Aim, Materials and Methods, Results, and Conclusion. This type of presentation is often required for informative abstracts. The benefit of the structured abstract is undoubtable — it follows a logical and well-arranged order which makes the abstract easy to find and access. The structure obliges the author to include information from all five sections and by this prevents the possibility any important data to be missing. Structured abstracts have become required in most medical journals although in some other areas they are not used. The preeminent researcher into the efficacy of structured abstracts, James Hartley has done research into the efficacy of the structured abstracts and has concluded that they:.

Skip to content. The scientific abstract and its importance December 1, First Steps in Science. What is a scientific abstract? Why is it important to have a good abstract? The english writer and eccentric Charles Caleb Colton said:. Types of abstracts. Descriptive abstracts: This type of abstract is usually very short 50— words. Informative abstracts: From these abstracts, you must get the essence of what your report is about, usually in about words. The parts include: Introduction Aim or purpose of research Materials and Methods Results Conclusion The abstracts provide accurate data on the contents of the work, especially on the results section.

Non-structured abstracts : When the abstract does not present divisions between each section , and it may not even present any of them, it is a non-structured abstract. Semi-structured abstracts : A semi-structured abstract is written in only one paragraph, where each sentence corresponds to a section. Structured abstracts : A structured abstract has a paragraph for each section: Introduction, Aim, Materials and Methods, Results, and Conclusion. The preeminent researcher into the efficacy of structured abstracts, James Hartley has done research into the efficacy of the structured abstracts and has concluded that they: contain more information are easier to read are easier to search facilitate peer review are preferred by readers and authors.

Suhasini Nagda. How to Write a Scientific Abstract. Some journals include additional sections, such as Objectives between Background and Methods and Limitations at the end of the abstract. In the rest of this paper, issues related to the contents of each section will be examined in turn. This section should be the shortest part of the abstract and should very briefly outline the following information:. In most cases, the background can be framed in just 2—3 sentences, with each sentence describing a different aspect of the information referred to above; sometimes, even a single sentence may suffice. The purpose of the background, as the word itself indicates, is to provide the reader with a background to the study, and hence to smoothly lead into a description of the methods employed in the investigation.

Some authors publish papers the abstracts of which contain a lengthy background section. There are some situations, perhaps, where this may be justified. In most cases, however, a longer background section means that less space remains for the presentation of the results. This is unfortunate because the reader is interested in the paper because of its findings, and not because of its background. A wide variety of acceptably composed backgrounds is provided in Table 2 ; most of these have been adapted from actual papers. Note that, in the interest of brevity, unnecessary content is avoided. The methods section is usually the second-longest section in the abstract.

It should contain enough information to enable the reader to understand what was done, and how. Table 3 lists important questions to which the methods section should provide brief answers. Questions regarding which information should ideally be available in the methods section of an abstract. Carelessly written methods sections lack information about important issues such as sample size, numbers of patients in different groups, doses of medications, and duration of the study. Readers have only to flip through the pages of a randomly selected journal to realize how common such carelessness is. Table 4 presents examples of the contents of accept-ably written methods sections, modified from actual publications.

The results section is the most important part of the abstract and nothing should compromise its range and quality. This is because readers who peruse an abstract do so to learn about the findings of the study. The results section should therefore be the longest part of the abstract and should contain as much detail about the findings as the journal word count permits. Important information that the results should present is indicated in Table 5. Examples of acceptably written abstracts are presented in Table 6 ; one of these has been modified from an actual publication. This section should contain the most important take-home message of the study, expressed in a few precisely worded sentences.

Usually, the finding highlighted here relates to the primary outcome measure; however, other important or unexpected findings should also be mentioned. It is also customary, but not essential, for the authors to express an opinion about the theoretical or practical implications of the findings, or the importance of their findings for the field. Thus, the conclusions may contain three elements:. Despite its necessary brevity, this section has the most impact on the average reader because readers generally trust authors and take their assertions at face value. For this reason, the conclusions should also be scrupulously honest; and authors should not claim more than their data demonstrate.

Hypothetical examples of the conclusions section of an abstract are presented in Table 7. Citation of references anywhere within an abstract is almost invariably inappropriate. Other examples of unnecessary content in an abstract are listed in Table 8. It goes without saying that whatever is present in the abstract must also be present in the text. Likewise, whatever errors should not be made in the text should not appear in the abstract eg, mistaking association for causality. As already mentioned, the abstract is the only part of the paper that the vast majority of readers see.

Therefore, it is critically important for authors to ensure that their enthusiasm or bias does not deceive the reader; unjustified speculations could be even more harmful. Misleading readers could harm the cause of science and have an adverse impact on patient care. However, nowhere in the abstract did the authors mention that these conclusions were based on just 5 cases and 12 controls out of the total sample of cases and controls. As a parting note: Most journals provide clear instructions to authors on the formatting and contents of different parts of the manuscript. These instructions often include details on what the sections of an abstract should contain. Authors should tailor their abstracts to the specific requirements of the journal to which they plan to submit their manuscript.

It could also be an excellent idea to model the abstract of the paper, sentence for sentence, on the abstract of an important paper on a similar subject and with similar methodology, published in the same journal for which the manuscript is slated. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation. Indian J Psychiatry. doi: PMCID: PMC Chittaranjan Andrade. Chittaranjan Andrade Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India Find articles by Chittaranjan Andrade. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr.

Chittaranjan Andrade, Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore — , Karnataka, India. E-mail: moc. liamg cedardna. Copyright © Indian Journal of Psychiatry. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Abstract Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. Keywords: Abstract, preparing a manuscript, writing skills. Table 1 General qualities of a good abstract. Open in a separate window. SECTIONS OF AN ABSTRACT Although some journals still publish abstracts that are written as free-flowing paragraphs, most journals require abstracts to conform to a formal structure within a word count of, usually, — words.

Background This section should be the shortest part of the abstract and should very briefly outline the following information: What is already known about the subject, related to the paper in question. What is not known about the subject and hence what the study intended to examine or what the paper seeks to present. Table 2 Examples of the background section of an abstract. Methods The methods section is usually the second-longest section in the abstract. Table 3 Questions regarding which information should ideally be available in the methods section of an abstract. Table 4 Examples of the methods section of an abstract.

The new PMC design is here! Learn more about navigating our updated article layout. The PMC legacy view will also be available for a limited time. Federal government websites often end in. gov or. The site is secure. Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract. The primary target of this paper is the young researcher; however, authors with all levels of experience may find useful ideas in the paper. This paper is the third in a series on manuscript writing skills, published in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry.

Earlier articles offered suggestions on how to write a good case report,[ 1 ] and how to read, write, or review a paper on randomized controlled trials. Although the primary target of this paper is the young researcher, it is likely that authors with all levels of experience will find at least a few ideas that may be useful in their future efforts. The abstract of a paper is the only part of the paper that is published in conference proceedings. The abstract is the only part of the paper that a potential referee sees when he is invited by an editor to review a manuscript.

The abstract is the only part of the paper that readers see when they search through electronic databases such as PubMed. Finally, most readers will acknowledge, with a chuckle, that when they leaf through the hard copy of a journal, they look at only the titles of the contained papers. If a title interests them, they glance through the abstract of that paper. Only a dedicated reader will peruse the contents of the paper, and then, most often only the introduction and discussion sections. Only a reader with a very specific interest in the subject of the paper, and a need to understand it thoroughly, will read the entire paper.

Thus, for the vast majority of readers, the paper does not exist beyond its abstract. For the referees, and the few readers who wish to read beyond the abstract, the abstract sets the tone for the rest of the paper. It is therefore the duty of the author to ensure that the abstract is properly representative of the entire paper. For this, the abstract must have some general qualities. These are listed in Table 1. Although some journals still publish abstracts that are written as free-flowing paragraphs, most journals require abstracts to conform to a formal structure within a word count of, usually, — words. The usual sections defined in a structured abstract are the Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions; other headings with similar meanings may be used eg, Introduction in place of Background or Findings in place of Results.

Some journals include additional sections, such as Objectives between Background and Methods and Limitations at the end of the abstract. In the rest of this paper, issues related to the contents of each section will be examined in turn. This section should be the shortest part of the abstract and should very briefly outline the following information:. In most cases, the background can be framed in just 2—3 sentences, with each sentence describing a different aspect of the information referred to above; sometimes, even a single sentence may suffice. The purpose of the background, as the word itself indicates, is to provide the reader with a background to the study, and hence to smoothly lead into a description of the methods employed in the investigation.

Some authors publish papers the abstracts of which contain a lengthy background section. There are some situations, perhaps, where this may be justified. In most cases, however, a longer background section means that less space remains for the presentation of the results. This is unfortunate because the reader is interested in the paper because of its findings, and not because of its background. A wide variety of acceptably composed backgrounds is provided in Table 2 ; most of these have been adapted from actual papers. Note that, in the interest of brevity, unnecessary content is avoided. The methods section is usually the second-longest section in the abstract. It should contain enough information to enable the reader to understand what was done, and how.

Table 3 lists important questions to which the methods section should provide brief answers. Questions regarding which information should ideally be available in the methods section of an abstract. Carelessly written methods sections lack information about important issues such as sample size, numbers of patients in different groups, doses of medications, and duration of the study. Readers have only to flip through the pages of a randomly selected journal to realize how common such carelessness is. Table 4 presents examples of the contents of accept-ably written methods sections, modified from actual publications.

The results section is the most important part of the abstract and nothing should compromise its range and quality. This is because readers who peruse an abstract do so to learn about the findings of the study. The results section should therefore be the longest part of the abstract and should contain as much detail about the findings as the journal word count permits. Important information that the results should present is indicated in Table 5. Examples of acceptably written abstracts are presented in Table 6 ; one of these has been modified from an actual publication.

This section should contain the most important take-home message of the study, expressed in a few precisely worded sentences. Usually, the finding highlighted here relates to the primary outcome measure; however, other important or unexpected findings should also be mentioned. It is also customary, but not essential, for the authors to express an opinion about the theoretical or practical implications of the findings, or the importance of their findings for the field. Thus, the conclusions may contain three elements:. Despite its necessary brevity, this section has the most impact on the average reader because readers generally trust authors and take their assertions at face value. For this reason, the conclusions should also be scrupulously honest; and authors should not claim more than their data demonstrate.

Hypothetical examples of the conclusions section of an abstract are presented in Table 7. Citation of references anywhere within an abstract is almost invariably inappropriate. Other examples of unnecessary content in an abstract are listed in Table 8. It goes without saying that whatever is present in the abstract must also be present in the text. Likewise, whatever errors should not be made in the text should not appear in the abstract eg, mistaking association for causality. As already mentioned, the abstract is the only part of the paper that the vast majority of readers see. Therefore, it is critically important for authors to ensure that their enthusiasm or bias does not deceive the reader; unjustified speculations could be even more harmful.

Misleading readers could harm the cause of science and have an adverse impact on patient care. However, nowhere in the abstract did the authors mention that these conclusions were based on just 5 cases and 12 controls out of the total sample of cases and controls. As a parting note: Most journals provide clear instructions to authors on the formatting and contents of different parts of the manuscript. These instructions often include details on what the sections of an abstract should contain. Authors should tailor their abstracts to the specific requirements of the journal to which they plan to submit their manuscript.

It could also be an excellent idea to model the abstract of the paper, sentence for sentence, on the abstract of an important paper on a similar subject and with similar methodology, published in the same journal for which the manuscript is slated. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation. Indian J Psychiatry. doi: PMCID: PMC Chittaranjan Andrade. Chittaranjan Andrade Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India Find articles by Chittaranjan Andrade.

Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. Chittaranjan Andrade, Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore — , Karnataka, India. E-mail: moc. liamg cedardna. Copyright © Indian Journal of Psychiatry. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Abstract Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. Keywords: Abstract, preparing a manuscript, writing skills. Table 1 General qualities of a good abstract.

Open in a separate window. SECTIONS OF AN ABSTRACT Although some journals still publish abstracts that are written as free-flowing paragraphs, most journals require abstracts to conform to a formal structure within a word count of, usually, — words. Background This section should be the shortest part of the abstract and should very briefly outline the following information: What is already known about the subject, related to the paper in question. What is not known about the subject and hence what the study intended to examine or what the paper seeks to present. Table 2 Examples of the background section of an abstract. Methods The methods section is usually the second-longest section in the abstract. Table 3 Questions regarding which information should ideally be available in the methods section of an abstract.

Table 4 Examples of the methods section of an abstract. Results The results section is the most important part of the abstract and nothing should compromise its range and quality. Table 5 Information that the results section of the abstract should ideally present. Table 6 Examples of the results section of an abstract. Thus, the conclusions may contain three elements: The primary take-home message.

The scientific abstract and its importance,INTRODUCTION

AdInstaText helps you to rewrite your texts and make them more readable and understandable. Improve your academic writing. Increase your acceptance rates and publish more and faster 12/05/ · A clear and concise abstract is one of the most essential parts of a scientific research paper, lab report, doctoral thesis, conference presentation or any other kind of 29/03/ · Structuring an Abstract 1. Explain the background of your study. As the shortest part of the abstract, your background should convey what 2. Share your research methods.  · SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS Download PDF. Download PDF. Abstracts; Published: 13 April ; SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS. Journal of General Internal Medicine volume 33, 15/03/ · A scientific abstract is defined as a summary of contents within a scientific paper. Scientific abstracts are necessary for all scientific studies including psychology, humanities 13/04/ · SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS Download PDF. Download PDF. Abstracts; Published: 13 April ; SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACTS. Journal of General Internal Medicine volume 33, ... read more

Errors in the Creation of an Abstract [ 1 ] The abstract of an article should contribute to readers the most relevant aspects of each part of the whole manuscript, maintaining a balance between excessive detail and a vague contribution of information. If a title interests them, they glance through the abstract of that paper. Usually, the finding highlighted here relates to the primary outcome measure; however, other important or unexpected findings should also be mentioned. From these abstracts, you must get the essence of what your report is about, usually in about words. Articles from The Journal of the Indian Prosthodontic Society are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications. Register now. oohay adganahusrd.

doi: It is therefore the duty of the author to ensure that the abstract is properly representative of the entire paper. Scientific abstracts are a challenge to write and for the success of our publications, scientific abstracts, careful and planned writing of the abstract is absolutely essential. They have a major role in scientific journals and research databases to display the scientific abstracts points of the paper and to make the information more scientific abstracts for the reader. From these abstracts, you must get the essence of what your report is about, usually in about words.

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